Farm Table says:
Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens
What is the problem?
Due to excessive accumulation of fungicides in the environment, many agricultural systems are needing to look at alternative methods for treating fungal pathogens that negatively affect yields.
Researchers from Europe investigated the use of beneficial microorganisms against fungal diseases to serve the agricultural production and reduce losses before and after harvest.
What did the research involve?
This research evaluated the fungicidal potential of yeasts isolated from grape berries collected from vinifera ssp sylvestris crops in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and from V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars managed under organic, biodynamic, and conventional farming systems.
Antagonist yeast strains that were most effective against cinerea, A. carbonarius, And P. expansum pathogens were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grapes
Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well
What were the key findings?
- Cordero-Bueso et al. (2017) reported that two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all moulds.
- Yeasts isolated from vinifera ssp sylvestris were up to 50% more effective against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera.
- Cordero-Bueso et al. (2017) state that the uvarum strains, M. guilliermondii strain, S. cerevisiae, and C. californica species are able to produce compounds which likely affect the mould development.
- kluyveri strains, H. uvarum strains, H. clermontiae strain, and M. guilliermondii strain revealed the highest efficacy in reducing mold infection and growth caused by B. cinerea, A. carbonarius, and P. expansum. Conversely, a M. guilliermondii strain showed the worst result in controlling grape decay caused by moulds.
This paper was summarised by Luke Stafford (Bachelor of Biological Sciences with Honours – Botany and Genetics Majors (La Trobe University) and reviewed by Nickala Best (PhD Student (La Trobe University). Learn more about Luke and Nickala here.