Farm Table says:
Numerous reports have emphasized the need for major changes in the global food system. Agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population, with rising demand for meat and high-calorie diets, while simultaneously minimizing its global environmental impacts.
• A system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, animals or humans.
• Often proposed as a solution.
• However, critics argue that it may have lower yields and would, therefore, need more land to produce the same amount of food as conventional farms, resulting in more widespread deforestation and biodiversity loss, and thus undermining the environmental benefits of organic practices.
To address the criticisms of the previous studies, several selection criteria were used:
• An analysis is was restricted to studies of ‘truly’ organic systems, defined as those with certified organic management or non-certified organic management, following the standards of organic certification bodies.
• Included only studies with comparable spatial and temporal scales for both organic and conventional systems
• Included only studies reporting (or from which we could estimate) sample size and error.
Here a comprehensive meta-analysis was used to examine the relative yield performance of organic and conventional farming systems globally.
• Overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields.
• Yield differences are highly contextual, depending on system and site characteristics, and range from 5% lower organic yields (rain-fed legumes and perennials on weak-acidic to weak-alkaline soils), 13% lower yields (when best organic practices are used), to 34% lower yields (when the conventional and organic systems are most comparable).
• Under certain conditions that is, with good management practices, particular crop types, and growing conditions organic systems can thus nearly match conventional yields, whereas under others it at present cannot.
To establish organic agriculture as an important tool in sustainable food production, the factors limiting organic yields need to be more fully understood, alongside assessments of the many social, environmental and economic benefits of the organic farming system.